What is Diabetes mellitus(DM)?

It is a group of metabolic disorders in which person has high blood sugar levels either due to inadequate insulin production or no response of body cells to insulin or both.

What are the types of DM?

There are two types of DM
Type 1 : Insulin Dependent Diabetes
Type 2 : Insulin Resistant Diabetes i.e. Inability to respond to Insulin.

What are the symptoms of DM ?

  • Excessive thirst
  • Frequency of Urination
  • Excessive Fatigability
  • Excessive hunger
  • Inappropriate weight loss
  • Blurred vision
  • A Symptomatic ( majority times , diagnosed on raised blood sugar )

How do we diagnose DM ?

  • Random blood sugar >200 mg/dl+/-Symptoms Of DM
  • Fasting blood sugar>126 mg /dl
  • Oral glucose tolerance test >200 mg/dl after 2hrs of 75 gm glucose
  • HbA1c>6.5

What are the risk factors of DM ?

  • Overweight (High BMI>25)
  • Abdominal Obesity (large waist circumference)
  • Family history of DM
  • Lack Of Exercise
  • Stress
  • Coexisting illness(heart disease, high cholesterol, high BP Etc.)
  • Diabetes during Pregnancy/ women with PCOD

What are the complications of DM ?

  • Diabetic neuropathy (nerve damage)
  • Diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage)
  • Diabetic retinopathy (vision damage)
  • Diabetic Foot ulcer
  • Ischemic heart disease (Heart attack)
  • Stroke
  • Acute Complications like Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic coma and hypoglycemia (low sugar)

What is Prediabetes?

It is the conditions in which the blood sugars are higher than normal, but not as high as diabetes. Intervention at this stage can greatly prevent the Onset of DM.

What is Gestational DM?

It is the rise of blood sugar level during pregnancy after affecting mother as well as child.

What investigations are needed in management of DM ?

  • Fasting and post meal blood sugars every month
  • HbA1c twice a year
  • Lipid profile twice a year
  • Kidney function test once a year
  • Eye screening once a year
  • Diabetic foot examination once a year
  • Cardiac screening once a year

What is the treatment of DM ?

The aim is to maintain blood sugar in normal range
For Type 1 DM : Insulin Injections
For type 2 DM : Medications and sometime Insulin Injections

Lifestyle changes, Regular exercise and Diabetic diet plays a key role in management of DM